These flaws are introduced when software developers create dynamic database queries that include user supplied input. Here is an example of equivalent attack in both cases, where attacker manages to retrieve admin user's record without knowing password:. If this statement is not prepared or properly handled when constructed, an attacker may be able to supply admin' -- in the username field to access the admin user's account bypassing the condition that checks for the password.
The resultant SQL query would looks like:. While here we are no longer dealing with query language, an attacker can still achieve the same results as SQL injection by supplying JSON input object as below:. Thus above statement compares password in database with empty string for greatness, which returns true.
A1 - Injection 1. Server Side JS Injection 1. A2-Broken Authentication and Session Management 2. Session Management 2. Password Guessing Attack 3.
A4-Insecure Direct Object References 5. A5-Security Misconfiguration 6. A6-Sensitive Data Exposure 7. A9-Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities Here is an example of equivalent attack in both cases, where attacker manages to retrieve admin user's record without knowing password: 1. How Do I Prevent It? Input Validation: Validate inputs to detect malicious values. For NoSQL databases, also validate input types against expected types Least Privilege: To minimize the potential damage of a successful injection attack, do not assign DBA or admin type access rights to your application accounts.
Similarly minimize the privileges of the operating system account that the database process runs under.The solution is to design your application to accept only strings from your users never allow objects by design and sanitize the inputs before using them mongo-sanitize is a good module for this. In relational databases, SQL Injection is a widely known attack where the malicious user may fill a web form with SQL statements in order to change existing data or to obtain more info than it's allowed to.
If an application builds its queries concatenating a base statement with a variable whose value is set through a input field, this application can be susceptible to this kind of attack. As a Users table is a pretty common table name for most websites, the attacker could guess that a table with this name would exist without knowing for sure.
He would also need luck that no foreign key would prevent the drop table command, but the idea is that he'll try and we need to prevent those attacks. In the relational world, this attack can be prevented using prepared statementswhere you use placeholders for each parameter and the database engine will not execute random SQL statements.
The attack tries to inject code when the inputs are not sanitized and the solution is simply to sanitize them before using. The solution in this case is to sanitize the input before using them. A good options is mongo-sanitize :. It will strip out any keys that start with ' 39; in the input, so you can pass it to MongoDB without worrying about malicious users overwriting.
If you are using Mongoose, you don't need to sanitize the inputs. In this case, you just need to set the properties to be typed as string.
To reproduce the problem, suppose that you have an online store and want to find out which users have more than X canceled orders.
You could query as the following:. In this case, mongo-sanitize will not help you if the input string is '0; return true'. Your where clause will be evaluated as this. I list it here:. That means: indexes will be ignored.
Scope is not accessible : the solution to avoid the code injection would be to add the where clause inside a function, like the following:. However, it won't work. The local variable value is not passed to Mongo and it returns the following error if executed in shell: thanks to Utaal.
Also, the Node.
There is always a better solution. If you want to read more about this subject, I suggest this blog post that contains code examples and a GitHub project to reproduce the attacks.This item in chinese. Jan 18, 29 min read. Anton Puzanov. Aviv Ron. To meet the challenges of running reliable, flexible enterprises, IT managers and technical leads rely on IT Pro for state-of-the-art solutions.
Although NoSQL data stores' new data models and query formats make old attacks, such as SQL injections, irrelevant, they give attackers new opportunities to insert malicious code. Aerospike is the global leader in next-generation, real-time NoSQL data solutions for any scale.
Learn more. Database security is a critical aspect of information security. Access to enterprise databases grants attackers great control over critical data. For example, SQL injection attacks insert malicious code into the statements the application passes to the database layer.
This enables attackers to do almost anything with the data, including accessing unauthorized data and altering, deleting, and inserting data. Although SQL injection exploitation has declined steadily over the years owing to secure frameworks and improved awareness, it remains a high-impact means to exploit system vulnerabilities.
For example, Web applications receive four or more Web attack campaigns per month, and SQL injections are the most popular attacks on retailers 1.
Furthermore, SQL injection vulnerabilities affect 32 percent of all Web applications 2.
Time-Based Blind NoSQL Injection
NoSQL not only SQL is a trending term in modern data stores; it refers to nonrelational databases that rely on different storage mechanisms such as document store, key-value store, and graph. The wide adoption of these databases has been facilitated by the new requirements of modern large-scale applications, such as Facebook, Amazon, and Twitter, which need to distribute data across a huge number of servers.
Traditional relational databases don't meet these scalability requirements; they require a single database node to execute all operations of the same transaction 1. As a result, a growing number of distributed, NoSQL key-value stores satisfy the scalability requirements of modern large-scale applications. Indeed, the popularity of NoSQL databases has grown consistently over the past several years, and MongoDB is ranked fourth among the 10 most popular databases, as Figure 1 illustrates.
Figure 1. Top 10 most popular databases according to db-engines. In this article, we provide an analysis of NoSQL threats and techniques as well as their mitigation mechanisms. Like almost every new technology, NoSQL databases lacked security when they first emerged 3—5. They suffered from a lack of encryption, proper authentication, role management, and fine-grained authorization 6. Furthermore, they allowed dangerous network exposure and denial-of-service attacks 3.
Today, the situation is better, and popular databases have introduced built-in protection mechanisms 7. But does this mean that NoSQL systems are immune to injections? Our study shows that although the security of the query language and drivers has largely improved, there are still techniques for injecting malicious queries.
Some works already provide reports of NoSQL injection techniques 1,3,4. Some initial application-scanning projects have emerged for example, nosqlproject. Web applications and services commonly use NoSQL databases to store customer data. Figure 2 illustrates a typical architecture in which a NoSQL database is used to store the data accessed via a Web application.
I have checked what exactly request is sent to database by tool which performed scanning and found while Requesting GET call it had added below line to GET request.
Scan received a " Time Out " response, which indicates that the injected " Sleep " command succeeded.
I need help to fix this vulnerability. Can anyone help me out here? I just wanted to understand what I need to add in my code to perform this check before connecting to database? You apparently have some code in your app that naively accepts user input or some other content and runs it as a MongoDB query.
Sorry, it's hard to give a more specific answer, because you haven't shown that code, or described what you intended it to do. But generally, in every place where you use external content, you have to imagine how it could be misused if the content doesn't contain the format you assume it does. You must instead validate the content, so it can only be in the format you intend, or else reject the content if it's not in a valid format. Learn more.
Asked 2 months ago. Active 2 months ago. Viewed 73 times. While scanning my Application for vulnerability, I have got one high risk error i. Thanks, Anshu. Anshu Anshu 45 6 6 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Bill Karwin Bill Karwin k 72 72 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Thanks Bill. I got it what you wants to say. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password.
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Dark Mode Beta - help us root out low-contrast and un-converted bits. Related Hot Network Questions.Once we logged in, we noticed that all the selects were waiting for table level read lock. We scrolled through the process list, and found the selects which were causing the problems.
After killing it, everything went back to normal. Obviously, this server was the victim of a SQL injection attack. Typically this occurs when you ask a user for input, like username, but instead of a real name they give you a MySQL statement that will be run by your server without you knowing it. We have a simple table:. That was a very mild injection, but it could be much more malicious: we could drop another table!
Once statements start waiting for lock on the table, all proceeding selects will wait for the previous locking statement to finish. As we see in the example, ALTER table will wait until it can get a lock on post table, and this blocks every other select from now on to the table. I would like to start a little talk about this, so if you encountered SQL injection before, would you share it with us, how they did it, or in general how do you prevent SQL injections in your application?
Interested in working with Janos? Schedule a tech call. Unless you are using an interface that allows multiple statements, you are safe from that subset of injection attacks, no? For example, the PHP mysql interface and the default mysqli interface does not allow multiple statements, so it would seem queries with a semicolon injected would simply fail.
Also one defense Janos does not mention is to always make sure the MySQL user has no higher permissions than necessary.
Unfortunately or fortunately? Think about websites: if SQL is injected into the SQL queries that read data necessary to make the home page appear, and there is no caching system, no user will be able to see the home page for X seconds. Another way could be only GRANTing the permission to execute stored procedures… but if you can do that, your company has control on the applications, so simpler solutions are possible.
Unfortunately, I still see this a lot. Your email address will not be published. Other brands, product and company names on this website may be trademarks or registered trademarks of Pythian or of third parties.
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SQL Injection with MySQL SLEEP()
Official Pythian Blog. Data Warehouse Migrations. Advanced Analytics Services. Analytics Strategy and Planning Services.What I would like to show you is a simple technique that can be effectively used against modern web applications, such as those written on top of NodeJS and MongoDB. In essence, this technique is very similar to SQL Injection SQLI although much simpler because we do not have to complete any weird and complicated strings.
Code injection in MongoDB
The first thing you learn when studying SQL Injection is how to create true statements. Let's consider the following example SQL statement that is used to authenticate the user when the username and the password are submitted to the application:.
Even today, this classic attack and its variations are wildly used to detect the presence of improper handling of SQL statements. Now, even though SQL Injection is still a popular attack vector, it is no longer as widespread as it used to be.
For example, if we assume that the username field, or parameter if you like, is coming from a deserialized JSON object, manipulation of the above query is not only possible but inevitable. Such as, if one supplies a JSON document as the input to the application, an attacker will be able to perform the exact same login bypass that was before possible only with SQL injection:.
In the above ExpressJS handler, the username and password fields are not validated to ensure that they are strings. Therefore, when the JSON document is deserialized, those fields may contain anything but strings that can be used to manipulate the structure of the query. As such, the username and the password from the database will be compared to the empty string "" and as a result return a positive outcome, i.
The request to exploit this vulnerability will look more or less like the one bellow. Use this link to open the request in Rest :. In the example above I deliberately choose to use JSON as the transport mechanism because it makes this attack easier to explain. While, it is not unusual to see JSON documents as the communication mechanism, they are not as widespread as url-encoded key-value pairs, simply known as urlencoding.
Depending on the time it takes to get the server responseit is possible to deduct some information. As you can guess, this type of inference approach is particularly useful for blind and deep blind SQL injection attacks.
Time-based attacks can be used to achieve very basic test like determining if a vulnerability is present.
This is usually an excellent option when the attacker is facing a deep blind SQL injection. The table below shows how the query execution can be paused in each DBMS. Only available since MySQL 5. It takes a number of seconds to wait in parameter.
More details here. Executes the specified expression multiple times. By using a large number as first parameter, you will be able to generate a delay. More details about the function on MySQL website. Suspends the execution for the specified amount of time. For more information about this procedure consult SQL Server official documentation. Suspends the execution of the query and continues it when system time is equal to parameter.
See link above for more information. Time-based attacks are a more complicated in Oracle. Refer to Oracle section below for more information. Note: Always make sure you know which database system is used before beginning your time-based tests. You can try to inject delay functions until you find one that generates a positive result.
If none of the above generates a slow response, fallback to techniques enumerated in the article about database fingerprinting. Identifying vulnerabilities is not the only utility of time-based attacks. When the time delay is integrated in a conditional statement, the attacker will be able to retrieve information from the database an even extract data.
This technique relies on inference testing which is explained in this article. Depending if the condition is verified or not, the time delay will be executed and the server response will be abnormally long. This will allow the attacker to know if the condition was true or false. Below is a reference of basic conditional statements in each database system.
As you can guess, the injected segments will differ slightly depending of the purpose of the time-based attack. Injecting a time delay for this DBMS is pretty straight forward. The example below shows how a hacker could identify if a parameter is vulnerable to SQL injection using this technique a slow response would mean the application uses a MySQL database. The attacker may also be interested to extract some information or at least verify a few assumptions. As mentioned earlier, this can be done by integrating the time delay inside a conditional statement.
If server response takes 15 seconds or more, we can conclude that this database server is running MySQL version 5. In order to inject time delays in a statement executed by SQL Server, you will need to use stack queries. The process is overall pretty simple. Here is how an attacker could determine if a field is vulnerable to SQL injection when the database is SQL Server a positive result is indicated by a slow response.
By using a conditional statement, it would also be possible to extract some information from the database. Instead of determining the version, let's see if the user is sa system administrator using time-based technique.